FindBugs: better default values for Nullability Annotations

One of the nicest features in FindBugs is its support for annotations indicating whether a certain value is nullable or not, and the way it uses that information to perform additional checks.

There are three annotations: @NonNull, @CheckForNull and @UnknownNullnes.
By default, FindBugs assumes that method parameters, method return values and fields are annotated implicitly with @UnknownNullness.

But, to me, the best policy is:

  • For method parameters: use @CheckForNull.
  • For method return values: use @NonNull.
  • For object fields: use @NonNull.


Easy. We are trying to follow this principle: give as much as as you can, demanding as little as possible -in a safe way.

For method parameters, the worst case is receiving a null value, because your code will need to be careful and check for null if it uses the value in any meaningful way. Therefore, we should use @CheckForNull by default because this demands less from our code users.

For method return values, life will be easier for our code users if they need not care about a returned value being null. Therefore, use @NonNull to give as much as you can.

For object fields, things are not that clear cut, because they do not affect the user (directly), as they should be private. I just chose to make them @NonNull because I feel this is the safest policy.

Of course, these are the “ideal” settings: you will have to provide an override from time to time, annotating an element explicitly with a different annotation.

How to do this?

You can provide the desired default annotations for a package by adding the following annotations to

@DefaultAnnotationForParameters( value=CheckForNull.class)
@DefaultAnnotationForFields( value=CheckForNull.class)
@DefaultAnnotationForMethods( NonNull.class)

Really neat!

If you start using these annotations with FindBugs, you will be surprised by the clarity they add and the way they can help diagnose null values misuse.



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